Senin, 09 Mei 2016

Structure And Written (Skill 3 and Skill 5)


Nama             : Anita
NPM               : 21213091
Kelas             : 3EB26
Jurusan         : Akuntansi
Matakuliah    : Bahasa Indonesia 2 # (softskill)



The second section of the TOEFL test is the Structure and Written Expression section. This section consists of forty questions (some tests may be longer). You have twenty-five minutes to complete the forty questions in this section. There are two types of questions in the Structure and Written Expression section of the TOEFL test:

1. Structure (questions 1-15) consists of fifteen sentences in which part of the sen-tence has been replaced with a blank. Each sentence is followed by four answer choices. You must choose the answer that completes the sentence in a grammatically correct way.

2. Written Expression (questions 16-40) consists of twenty-five sentences in which four words or groups of words have been underlined. You must choose the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.


Appositives can cause confusion in the Structure section of the TOEFL test because an appositive can be mistaken for the subject of a sentence. An appositive is a noun that comes before or after another noun and has the same meaning.

Sally, the best student in the class, got an A on the exam.

In this example Sally is the subject of the sentence and the best student in the class can easily be recognized as an appositive phrase because of the noun student and because of the commas. The sentence says that Sally and the best student in the class are the same person. Note that if you leave out the appositive phrase, the sentence still makes sense

(Sally got an A on the exam).

The following example shows how an appositive can be confused with the subject of a sentence in the Structure section of the TOEFL test.

Example I

____, George, is attending the lecture.

(A)   Right now

(B)   Happily

(C)   Because of the time

(D)   My friend

In this example you should recognize from the commas that George is not the subject of the sentence. George is an appositive. Because this sentence still needs a subject, the best answer is (D), my friend. Answers (A), (B), and (C) are incorrect because they are not subjects.

The next example shows that an appositive does not always come after the subject; an appositive can also come at the beginning of the sentence.
Example II

____, Sarah rarely misses her basketball shots.

(A)       An excellent basketball player

(B)       An excellent basketball player is

(C)      Sarah is an excellent basketball player

(D)      Her excellent basketball play

In this example you can tell that Sarah is the subject and misses is the verb because there is no comma separating them. In the space you should put an appositive for Sarah, and Sarah is an excellent basketball player, so answer (A) is the best answer. Answers (B) and (C) are not correct because they each contain the verb is, and an appositive does not need a verb. Answer (D) contains a noun, play, that could possibly be an appositive, but play is not the same as Sarah, so this answer is not correct.

The following chart outlines the key information that you should remember about appositives :

An appositive is a noun that comes before or after another noun and is generally set off from the noun with commas. If a word is an appositive, it is not the subject. The following appositive structures are both possible in English.

a really good mechanic,
is fixing  the car.

A really good mechanic, Tom
is fixing the car.


Past participles can cause confusion in the Structure section of the TOEFL test because a past participle can be either an adjective or a part of a verb. The past participle is the form of the verb that appears with have or be. It often ends in - ed, but there are also many irregular past participles in English. (See Appendix F for a list of irregular past participles.)

The family has purchased a television.


The poem was written by Paul.


In the first sentence the past participle purchased is part of the verb because it is accompanied by has. In the second sentence the past participle written is part of the verb because it is accompanied by was.

A past participle is an adjective when it is not accompanied by some form of be or have.

The television purchased yesterday was expensive.


The poem written by Paul appeared in the magazine.


In the first sentence purchased is an adjective rather than a verb because it is not accompanied by a form of be or have (and there is a verb, was, later in the sentence). In the second sentence written is an adjective rather than a verb because it is not accompanied by a form of be or have (and there is a verb, appeared, later in the sentence).
The following example shows how a past participle can be confused with the verb in the structure section of the TOEFL test.


The packages____ mailed at the post office will arrive Monday.

(A)      have

(B)      were

(C)      them

(D)      just

In this example, if you look only at the first few words of the sentence, it appears that packages is the subject and mailed is either a complete verb or a past participle that needs a helping verb. But if you look further in the sentence, you will see that the verb is will arrive. You will then recognize that mailed is a participial adjective and is therefore not part of the verb. Answers (A) and (B) are incorrect because mailed is an adjective and does not need a helping verb such as have or were. Answer (C) is incorrect because there is no need for the object them. Answer (D) is the best answer to this question.
The following chart outlines what you should remember about past participles:

A past participle often ends in -ed but there are also many irregular past participle. For many verbs, including -ed verbs, the simple past and the past participle are the same and can be easily confused. The -ed form of the verb can be (1) the simple past, (2) the past participle of a verb, or
(3)   an adjective.

1.  She painted this picture,
2.  She has painted this picture.
3.  The picture painted by Karen in now in a museum.

1. _____ the demands of aerospace, medicine, and agriculture, aengineers, are creating exotic new metallic substances.
    (A) Meet
    (B) Being met are
    (C) To meet
    (D) They are meeting
2. _______ James A. Bland, “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny” was adopted is the state song of Virginia in 1940.
    (A) Was written b
    (B) His writing was 
    (C) He wrote the
    (D) Written by
3. Mary Garden, ______ the early 1900’s was considered one of the best singing actresses of her time.
    (A) a soprano was popular
    (B) in a popular soprano
    (C) was a popular soprano
    (D) a popular soprano in
4. In the realm of psychological theory Margaret F. Washburn was a dualist _____ that motor phenomena have an essential role in psychology.
    (A) who she believed
    (B) who believed
    (C) believed
    (D) who did she believe

A. Contoh Soal TOEFL Written Expression

16. On Ellesmere Island in the Arctic one fossil forest consist of a nearly hundred 
                                                                                        A                 B
      large stumps scattered on an exposed coal bed.
                                C                       D
17. The surface conditions on the planet Mars are the more like the Earth’s than are 
                                A                                                    B                                C
       those of any other planet in the solar system.
18. The midnight sun is a phenomenon in which the Sun visible remains in the sky 
                                   A                                                              B                   C
       for twenty-four hours or longer.
19. The Humber River and its valley form a major salmon-fishing, lumbering, hunting, 
                                           A              B         C
       and farmer region in western Newfoundland, Canada.

Pembahasan Soal dan Jawaban

A. Structure
1. Jawab            : (C) To meet
    Keyword        : the demands of aerospace
    Pembahasan : Pola infinitive phrase: to infinitive + object of to infinitive
    Kalimat tersebut menyatakan tujuan atau maksud. Maka dibutuhkan to infinitive prhase.
    Sehingga pilihan phrase yang tepat untuk mengisi rumpang tersebut adalah to meet.
2. Jawab              : (D) Written by
    Keyword         : James A. Bland
    Pembahasan  : Kalimat di atas membutuhkan Adjective Phrase untuk menerangkan kata           benda “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny”.
Frasa ajektif yang paling tepat adalah Written by. Mengapa disebut frasa ajektif, karea past participle (v3) yang tidak ditemani bentuk be atau have adalah sebuah ajektif.
3. Jawab            : (D) a popular soprano in 
    Keyword        : Mary Garden
    Pembahasan : Kalimat pada soal membutuhkan Appositive Phrase. Mary Garden dan appositive phrase (a popular soprano) memiliki makna yang sama. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah a popular soprano in.
4. Jawab            : (B) Who believed 
    Keyword        : a dualist
    Pembahasan : Pola adjective clause : (Conj. + S + V).
    Untuk menerangkan kata benda a dualist maka klausa yang tepat adalah who believed.
B. Written Expression
16. Jawab           : (B) a nearly 
      Keyword       : hundred large stumps
      Pembahasan : a nearly -> nearly
      Kata “a nearly” tidak memerlukan indefinite article/determiner “a”, karena kata benda stumps adalah plural.
17. Jawab            : (B) The more 
      Keyword        : the planet Mars
      Pembahasan : the more -> more
                               Pola comparative: more ___ than ___
                               Maka seharusnya tidak perlu definite article “the” tapi cukup “more” saja.
18. Jawab            : (B) visible remains 
      Keyword        : the sun
      Pembahasan : visible remains -> remains visible
      Kata the sun dalam anak kalimat di atas memerlukan predicate bukan noun phrase             (visible remains). Yang tepat seharusnya remains visible.
19. Jawab            : (D) farmer 
      Keyword        : and
      Pembahasan : farmer -> farming
      Konjungsi and digunakan untuk menghubungkan kelas kata yang sederajat. Karena sebelum “and” bentuk katanya adalah gerund maka kata farmer seharusnya diubah dalam bentuk gerund juga yaitu farming.
Johan H.F and Anne Juwita. 2009. Smart Way To Foefl. General Cerdas : Jakarta.

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